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Glossar


A

adiabatic
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. The term "adiabatic" literally means impass- able (from a dia bainein), corresponding here to an absence of heat transfer.  

AHU (Air Handling Unit)
An air handler, or air handling unit and often abbreviated to AHU, is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Air handlers usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU.

Air conditioning
The term air conditioning most commonly refers to the cooling and dehumidification of indoor air for thermal comfort. In a broader sense, the term can refer to any form of cooling, heating, ventilation or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.

Air filter
An air filter is a device which removes contaminants, often solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, and bacteria from air. Air filters are used in application where air quality is important, notably in building ventilation systems and in engines, such as internal combustion engines, gas compress- ors, diving air compressors, gas turbines and others.

Air shower
The term air shower can refer to the specialized antechamber which is passed through before enter- ing a cleanroom in order to blow off excess dust particles from cleanroom personnel before they enter, to minimize contamination.

B

BMS (Building Management System)
The controls are switched onto a special Building Management System. Via an Ethernet connection it is possible to log into this system from other PC workstations. For individual user groups password levels are created to enable observation of the plant (momentary actual values and operating status are displayed), to determine faults, to acknowledge faults and to reset design values.

C

Cleanroom technology
Cleanroom technology is a protective technology. It is used, especially in pharmaceutical and micro- electronic industries, to protect products and technical processes from being polluted. A highly sophi- sticated air flow technique has ensure that ultra-clean air completely surrounds the product in quest- ion, preventing contaminants from infiltrating from the outside. At the same time the number of parti- cles and germs, the temperature and the values of humidity and pressure has to be held at a con- stant rate.
For the physical environment special wall and ceiling systems are required. The concept of a com- plete room-in-room program in modular design allows cleanrooms to be constructed in almost any building.
The access to the cleanroom itself occurs by personal and material air locks. Powerful air flows and filter systems disperse and exhaust existing particles to avoid that no contamination from outside will brought in.

Cleanroom classifications
Cleanrooms are classified according to the number and size of particles permitted per volume of air. Large numbers like "class 100" or "class 1000" refer to US FED STD 209E, and denote the number of particles of size 0.5 µm or larger permitted per cubic foot of air. The standard also allows interpo- lation, so it is possible to describe e.g. "class 2000". Small numbers refer to ISO 14644-1 stand- ards, which specify the decimal logarithm of the number of particles 0.1 µm or larger permitted per cubic metre of air. So, for example, an ISO class 5 clean room has at most 105 = 100,000 particles per m³.

Curing
Curing is a term in polymer chemistry and Process Engineering that refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical ad- ditives, ultraviolet radiation, electron beam (EB) or heat. In rubber, the curing process is also called vulcanization.

F

Fan Filter Unit
State-of the art fans and high tech flow configuration combined with sophisticated electronics give rise to a unit which distinguishes itself through low energy consumption, quiet operation and flexible plant operation. VARIPRO Fan Filter Units with EC drive set a major standard in cleanroom techno- logy. 

G 

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice)
Good Manufacturing Practice or GMP is a term that is recognized worldwide for the control and man- agement of manufacturing and quality control testing of foods and pharmaceutical products. Since sampling products will statistically only ensure that the samples themselves are suitable for use, and end-point testing relies on sampling, GMP takes the holistic approach of regulating the manu- facturing and laboratory testing environment itself. An extremely important part of GMP is document- ation of every aspect of the process, activities, and operations involved with drug and medical device manufacture.

H

HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning)
HVAC is an acronym that stands for "heating, ventilation and air conditioning". HVAC is sometimes referred to as "climate control" and is particularly important in the design of medium to large indu- strial and office buildings, where humidity and temperature must all be closely regulated whilst maintaining safe and healthy conditions within. 

HEPA filter (High Efficiency Patriculate Air Filter)
A HEPA Filter is a type if air filter. It consists of a framework made of anodized aluminium extruded profile into which the filter medium, made of folded glass fibre, is glued. The glass fibre medium is folded V-shaped with synthetic threads as spacers to guarantee optimum air flow and utilization of the filter surface.

ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
The International Organization for Standardization, widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. The orga- nization promulgates world-wide industrial and commercial standards.  While ISO defines itself as a non-governmental organization, its ability to set standards that often become law, either through treat- ies or national standards, makes it more powerful than most NGOs.

L 

Laminar Flow
Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers. In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion, low momentum convection, pressure and velocity independent from time. It is the opposite of turbulent flow. In nonscientific terms laminar flow is "smooth," while turbulent flow is "rough".

P

Powder coating
Powder coating is a type of dry coating, which is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. The coating is typically applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form a "skin." Powder coating is mainly used for coating of metals, such as "white goods", aluminium extrusions, and automobile and motorcycle parts.

Polycarbonate
Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polymers. They are easily worked, moulded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in the modern chemical industry. Their interesting features (temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties) position them between commodity plastics and engineering plastics.

S

SHELMEQ®
The term “cleanroom technology” is used both by suppliers of particle counters and by manufac- turers of such items as benches, clothing, mats, cloths and paper etc. for cleanroom use.
The purpose is to define a performance unit for cleanroom technology and its interfaces. For this performance unit Daldrop + Dr.Ing.Huber has created the term SHELMEQ®. It is a performance unit which can be seen as key trade.

Surface finishing
Surface finishing is used to describe a number of industrial processes that can be applied to im- prove the surface of a manufactured item. The major reason to apply these processes is to improve appearance, improve adhesion or ink wettability, corrosion protection, wear resistance and friction control also are areas where performance can be enhanced by these treatments. In limited cases some of these techniques can be used to restore original dimensions to salvage or repair an item.




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